by Henry L. Abbott in Johnson's New Universal Cyclopædia: A Scientific and Popular Treasury of Useful Knowledge
Submarine Boats. — But one boat of this character won a record during the war, and hers was sufficiently tragic to deter imitation. She was of boiler iron, 35 feet long, was propelled by hand at a maximum speed of 4 knots, and could remain submerged to any desired depth for half an hour. Her crew consisted of nine men. In the preliminary trials (see SUBMARINE NAVIGATION) , she sank three times, drowning 23 men. Finally, under Lieut. Dixon, C.S.N., she sailed out of the harbor, attacked and sunk the Federal steam-sloop Housatonic, and disappeared for ever with her crew. She was designed to pass under the enemy, dragging a floating torpedo, which would explode when brought in contact with his hull, but on this occasion she was used like an ordinary David.
Abbott, Henry L., "Torpedo," Johnson's New Universal Cyclopædia: A Scientific and Popular Treasury of Useful Knowledge, Volume IV, page 894, New York: Alvin J. Johnson & Son, 1877
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