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April 20, 1861                        April 22

The United States Fleet off Fort Pickens, Florida.

Originally published April 20, 1861 in Harper’s Weekly

WE publish (above) a picture of the United States fleet now lying off Fort Pickens, Florida. It consists of the steam sloop Brooklyn, the frigate Sabine, the sloop of war St. Louis, the steamers Crusader and Wyandot, and a supply ship. They lie about three miles off the shore, and form a beautiful picture as seen from Fort Pickens.

The following list will give the strength, and the names of the officers of the several vessels:



Captain—Henry A. Adams. Lieutenant and Executive Officer—J. R. Mullany. Lieutenants—George P. Welsh, Wm. H. Murdagh, Robert F. R. Lewis, L. H. Norman. Acting Master—Wm. P. McCann. Surgeon—M. G. Delaney. Passed Assistant Surgeon—James T. Harrison. Paymaster—John F. Steele. First Lieutenant of Marines—John Cash. Boatswain—Paul Atkinson. Gunner—James M. Cooper. Carpenter—Wm. D. Jenkins. Sailmaker—John Joins. Master’s Mates—R. L. Parker, Val. Voorhees, Daniel Dunsmore, Wm. S. Roche, John Skillman, J. R. Crockwell, Thomas Garvey. Captain’s Clerk—B. H. Lane. Purser’s Clerk—John M. Falk.



Captain—William Walker. Lieutenants—James A. Doyle, J. C. Williamson, Albert W. Smith, William N. Jeffers, William Mitchell, H. A. Adams. Surgeon—Lewis W. Minor. Paymaster—Thomas H. Looker. Assistant Surgeons—T. W. Leach, M. P. Christian. Lieutenant of Marines—George R. Graham. Engineers—Joshua Follansbee, W. B. Brooks, Marshall P. Jordan, James W. Wittaker, Henry Snyder, E. F. Mayer, Jun., John K. Neill.



Captain—Charles H. Poor. Executive Officer-Lieutenant J. D. Todd. Lieutenants—W. W. Low, M. P. Jones, G. E. Belnap. Surgeon—John O. C. Barclay. Paymaster—G. T. Pierce. Assistant Surgeon—J. O. Purnett. Marine Officer—Lieutenant H. L. Graham. Boatswain—P. A. Chassen. Gunner—J. W. Searle. Carpenter—James McDonald. Sailmaker—L. B. Wakeman. Clerks—Captain’s, W. Gordon; Paymaster’s, W. Shelbrick.



Lieutenant Commanding—T. A. M. Craven. Lieutenants—J. M. Duncan, J. E. Jewett, and A. E. K. Benham. Passed Assistant Surgeon—J. W. B. Greenhom. Master—Rush R. Wallace. Engineers—First Assistant, J. A. Grier; Third Assistants, L. Campbell, O. H. Lackey, and J. D. Lining.



Lieutenant Commanding—Abner Read. Lieutenants—J. R. Eggleston, J. M. Stribling. Assistant Surgeon—Algernon S. Garnet. Engineers—First Assistant, W. H. Cushman; Third Assistants, M. H. Plunkett, K. Wilson. Purser—Emery J. (Third Assistant Engineer)Brooks.



Captain—Alexander Gibson. Lieutenants—C. H. B. Caldwell, James S. Maxwell, Alfred Hopkins. Master—J. A. Howell. Assistant Surgeon—A. W. Sandford. Paymaster—E. W. Dunn. Clerks—Captain’s, John Van Dyke; Paymaster’s, A. C. Bowie.

April 22, 1861

for April 21, 1861

Chronological History of the Civil War

  • Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore Railroad taken possession of by the U. S. Government.
  • War sermons preached in most of the Northern churches.

New York Herald

Important Military Movements.

Our city is a military camp. The greatest enthusiasm prevails. We are full of brigade, regimental and company orders. But, owing to the length and importance of the proceedings of the overwhelming demonstration in Union square yesterday afternoon, we are compelled to defer the publication of them till tomorrow, when our gallant troops shall have our attention. We shall do our part in this great crisis.

Three to five thousand men will leave this city today for the South. The Sixth, Twelfth and Seventy-first regiments will take their departure at nine o’clock this morning. Several steamers—the Baltic, Marion, Columbia, Monticello, James Adger, Roanoke, Alabama, R.R. Cuyler and Chesapeake—have been chartered by the government. The first three sail this morning. The last three sailed yesterday.

Orders have also been received for the departure of the Eighth and Sixth-ninth regiments on Tuesday, and the Ninth on Wednesday. The Fire Department Zouaves organized last evening at Palace Garden and elected their various officers.

Troops are being rapidly organized all over the North, and in another week the government will have a force sufficient to repel any attack that may be made upon Washington. Obstructed railroads or blown up bridge may slightly delay, but not deter our troops. Advance! is the order.

A great mass meeting in support of the government, in the present crisis of the nation, was held at Union square, in this city, yesterday afternoon. Such a mighty uprising of the people has never before been witnessed in New York, nor throughout the whole length and breadth of the Union. Five stands were erected, from which some of the most able speakers of the city and State addressed the multitude on the necessity of rallying around the flag of the republic in this hour of it danger. A series of resolutions was proposed and unanimously adopted, pledging the meeting to use every means to preserve the Union intact and inviolate, and agreeing to the appointment of a committee of twenty-five, to represent the citizens in the collection of funds and the transaction of such other business in aid of the government as the public interests may require. Great unanimity prevailed throughout the whole proceedings; party politics were ignored, and the entire meeting—speakers and listeners—were a unit in maintaining the national honor unsullied. Major Anderson, the hero of Fort Sumter, was present, and showed himself at the several stands, at each of which he was most enthusiastically received. An impressive feature of the occasion was the flag of Fort Sumter, hoisted on the stump of the staff that had been shot away by the revolutionists, and which was placed in the hand of the equestrian statue of Washington.

May painful but unfounded rumors were in circulation respecting the New York Seventh regiment yesterday. The regiment reached Philadelphia at one o’clock on Saturday morning, and at four o’clock the same afternoon left that city for Washington, via Annapolis.

The secessionists at Baltimore have destroyed the bridges near the city, thus cutting off communication with the North. The citizens of Baltimore were generally arming yesterday—whether to protect themselves from the “uglies” or to resist the Northern troops is not stated. There is a report that the government intend to concentrate a large force at Harrisburg, and invade Maryland, with the view of reopening communication with the capital via Baltimore.

The United States District Attorney, Mr. Delafield Smith, has called for a special Grand Jury for the purpose of taking immediate action on any treasonable acts that may arise during the present excitement.

Robert Murray, of the Seventh ward, and one of the Harbor Masters of this city, was sworn in as United States Marshal yesterday before Judge Betts.

Our Southern Rebellion—The Critical Position of Maryland and Virginia.

The exciting and momentous Southern revolutionary events of the last seven days will afford matter for a volume to the future historian of this eventful crisis. Our reports and rumors of the last twenty four hours from Maryland and Virginia seem to indicate a revolutionary frenzy in those two States which nothing but an exhausting invasion can remedy. The destruction of railway bridges in Maryland, the general arming of Baltimore, the detention of our Seventh regiment at Philadelphia, the prevailing fear of the descent of an overwhelming secession mob upon Washington, the planting of secession batteries along the Virginia side of the Potomac, are the significant items of our Southern new budget of the last twenty four hours.

We do not entertain any serious fears of the safety of Washington. General Scott is there, with at least six thousand well appointed fighting men under his command. With this force he can disperse a secession mob of any possible numbers; and the concentration of anything like an organized hostile military force at Washington for a week to come, sufficient to cope with General Scott, we do not imagine can be effected. With the city long bridge, a mile and a quarter long and with two draws, in his possession, no hostile force from Virginia can cross the river there or below without boats; and at this season of the year, with the short bridge across the rapids, three miles above Georgetown, in his possession, no hostile force, without boats, can cross the river for sixty miles above Washington. In the next place, with all the secrecy of the Virginia Convention, and will all the suspected preparations of Governor Wise and Major Ben McCulloch, we consider it altogether improbable that they can have mustered and equipped an army strong enough to venture across the Potomac within striking distance. We will be safe for this week, and by Saturday we hope and trust that our glorious old General in Chief will have full twenty five thousand loyal soldiers under his eye.

So much for Washington. We rely upon General Scott and his reinforcements against all possibilities from the Virginia side of the river, now or hereafter. As for a secession raid from Baltimore, we apprehend that the available military resources of that city will be needed at home. We are informed that the secession epidemic rages there, and generally over Maryland; but with our Northern highways leading directly to Baltimore, Washington may be considered safe on the Maryland side.

For the sake of Maryland, we deplore the manifestations before us of her disaffection. She must resume her position of loyalty to the Union or she will suffer severely. She is in the most defenceless position, and the most open to attack of any State of the Union. Governor Hicks appears to be giving way. Let him stand firm, and he will soon be strong enough to hold the helm without fear or trembling. We appeal to him and his people to consider their position. For one hundred and fifty miles the broad Chesapeake Bay divides the eastern from the western shore of their State. A fleet may ascend this bay to Annapolis and Baltimore, and lay them in ashes. The long, northern frontier of the State is completely exposed. Thus by land and water, if she places herself in the attitude of rebellion, Maryland may be overrun and subdued in a single week, including the extinction of slavery within her borders; for war makes its own laws.

We attach very little importance to the reported planting of secession batteries along the Virginia shore of the Potomac below Washington. Opposite Mount Vernon, sixteen miles below the city, the river is commanded by Fort Washington, in possession of an efficient garrison of the United States, and from that point the stream, two miles in width, gradually widens to its mouth, where it is nearly ten miles across. In 1814 some batteries were raised along the Virginia shore to oppose the ascent of the British fleet; but a few broadsides knocked them to pieces, the fleet ascended to Alexandria, and opening their portholes so as to rake the principal streets, reduced the place, and levied from it an immense amount of tribute, in the shape of flour, pork, beef, and tobacco.

We are less concerned about Washington than about Maryland. Loyal to the Union, she is perfectly safe, negroes and all; disloyal to the Union, she may be crushed including her institution of slavery. Let her stand by the Union, and the Union will protect and respect her, slavery and all.

The War.—The Monster Meeting Yesterday.—The Reception of Major Anderson.

Fifth avenue rarely becomes excited or permits excitement in its neighborhood. The vicinity of the Brevoort House, corner of Fifth avenue and Eighth street, was as quiet, therefore, and as secluded as if the whole city had not been wild with excitement , or as if the Hotel were located in some pleasant country village, far from any metropolis an metropolitan furor. A few pedestrians, dotting the streets here and there, and a small company of boys, emulating their elders, and marching to the music of the fife and drum were the only signs of life in that locality when, at two o’clock P.M. Major Anderson,  accompanied by Major Ruggles, stepped into his carriage and drove off for Union square.

The carriage drove through Fourteenth street, which was ablaze with flags, displayed from every window of every house, and passing unnoticed through the crowd which was just beginning to collect in Union square, halted at the private entrance to the Everett House, where Major Anderson was received by the members of the committee and escorted to a parlor upon the second floor. Very few persons were aware that the hero of the hour was at the hotel, and, as the staircase was well sentinelled, the Major was not intruded upon by the usual crowd of enthusiastic outsiders. A brief and informal reception of the members of the committee was held, and Major Anderson looked out of the windows upon the crowds of people that already choked up the square, and still came pouring in from every street in solid and interminable processions. The scene was magnificent. The vast mass of people in the square, the thunders of music, the rustling of countless flags and banners, the songs sung by private parties in the surrounding hotels and dwellings, the cheers, the enthusiasm, the animation are indescribable. As the flag of Moultrie waved from over the central stand, and as the Sumter flag—which the hero had so nobly defended, which he has promised to replace upon the fort if the government desire it, and which, ribboned by balls, shows at once how terribly it was assailed and how gloriously it was protected—was raised upon the statue of Washington, the shattered flagstaff placed within his arms as if our Father were calling upon us to support and protect it. Major Anderson was so overcome with emotion that he could scarcely speak.

At three o’clock the committee formed, and, with Major Anderson at their head and the police making a passage for them, marched to the central stand, opposite the statue. Volleys of cheers saluted the Major as he passed through the crowd and took his place upon the stand. The crowd upon the platform was so great that Major Anderson could not be distinguished by the people; but his presence seemed to be felt like an electric shock, his name was passed from mouth to mouth, and in an instant waves upon waves of cheers saluted him, hats, flags and handkerchiefs were thrown into the air, and the people seemed wild with excitement and enthusiasm. The Major bowed his respects to these salutations and after several minutes the people intermitted their cheering from sheer want of strength to cheer longer. The ovation was splendid, and worth of the man who had earned it.

MAJOR ANDERSON’S MEN were, we understand, invited and expected to be present with their gallant commander. The rules of the service, however, did not allow the officers and men to attend in a body and the rules are particularly strict and rigidly observed at such times, as these. Several of the men from Governor’s Island were among the crowd, however, but being dressed in the blue army overcoats which are also worn by our militia, they were not recognized. None of Major Anderson officers accompanied him upon the platform except Captain Doubleday, of Brooklyn, and Lieutenants Snyder and Sneed, who were saluted with tremendous applause.

Daily Times

(Leavenworth, KS)

Military Excitement.

Rumors were current here yesterday, that the Missourians were preparing for an attack on Fort Leavenworth. A letter was received by one of our citizens, from the Delaware Indian agent, which stated that companies were being formed in Parkville and Independence, for a hostile expedition against the Fort, and various other reports and speculations were circulated, which strengthened the impression that some scheme of the kind had been concocted.

Most of our people placed but little confidence in the rumors referred to; yet it was deemed prudent to use every precaution to guard against such an assault being made, either at the present time or in the future.—Accordingly, Mayor McDowell and others visited the Fort and tendered to Capt. Steele the services of one hundred men to assist in its defence. The Captain thought there was no ground for apprehension, and said the regular troops under his command could easily protect the post against a force of 5,000, and were fully prepared to do so. He, however, accepted the offer of the Mayor, and the one hundred men were stationed at the Fort last night. We are informed that Capt. Steele also gave the Mayor a large quantity of arms, to be used in the defence of the city.

A number of military companies were organized yesterday for home protection. Company A selected the following officers: Capt., J. C. Stone; 1st Lieutenant, A. M Clark; 2nd Lieutenant, Thos. Carney. Nearly 100 names were enrolled.

Company B, Home Guards, organized by electing I. G. Locey Captain; Messrs. Haller and Hughes, 1st and 2nd Lieutenants.

There was a French company organized, but we did not learn the names of the officers.

The Union and Shields Guards have increased their numbers. The former company have daily drills.

These movements show that our citizens are determined to be prepared for any emergency that may arise in the present excited state of the country. We believe that if it is thoroughly understood that we are heartily united in resistance to any invasion of our State, and ready to meet it at a moment’s warning, no trouble need be apprehended.

Diary of a Yankee in the Patent Office

by Horatio Nelson Taft

SUNDAY 21—This has been a pleasant but anxious day. We seem to be surrounded by enimies, and enimies in our midst. No troop have yet arrived since the Mass. Regt. How anxiously have we looked for the 7th Regt of NY today. I left the National tonight at 11 o’clock but could get no reliable information. We may be in the midst of bloodshed any hour, and I am looking for an outbreak or attack all the time. Famine stares us in the face unless the routes are kept open. Where are the expected troops?

A Rebel War Clerk’s Diary

by John Beauchamp Jones

April 21st—Received several letters to-day which had been delayed in their transmission, and were doubtless opened on the way. One was from my wife, informing me of the illness of Custis, my eldest son, and of the equivocal conduct of some of the neighbors. The Rev. Mr. D, son of the late B——p, raised the flag of the Union on his church.

The telegraphic wires are still in operation.

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Skedaddle e-journal is in its second year of publication. 

The first volume, with four issues, was published in 2004. Each issue contained a variety of articles, poems, and images, with no particular focus other than the American Civil War. 

In Volume 2, the focus is on day-to-day news from newspapers and other sources, starting with January 1, 1861 and ending on December 31, 1861.  In the initial issue of this volume, Lincoln is not yet inaugurated and the only state that has seceded is South Carolina.

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