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  April 26                                          April 28

April 27, 1861

Chronological History of the Civil War

  • President’s proclamation ordering the ports of Virginia and North Carolina to be blockaded.

Harper’s Weekly

President Lincoln

WE publish, herewith, from a photograph just taken expressly for this paper, a PORTRAIT OF THE PRESIDENT. It is the first accurate portrait that has been published of him since he began to grow his beard.

HON. ABRAHAM LINCOLN, of Illinois, was born on the 12th February, 1809, in Hardin County, Kentucky. His family, although much respected, were not blessed with much of this world’s goods, and he was forced to fight his own way through the opening struggles of life’s campaign. In this way be became intimately acquainted with the industrial classes, and they now claim him as One of their number—”The Flatboatman.” It is also reported that he supported himself for a winter by splitting rails for a farmer whence his sobriquet, The Rail-splitter.

Whether he was engaged in rural pursuits, or in piloting down the Mississippi boats laden with produce, he permitted no opportunity to escape for the improvement of his mind. When he had thus, by his own exertions, been admitted to the bar, he settled in the pleasant town of Springfield Illinois; where he has since resided.

When the “Black Hawk War” broke out, in the spring of 1832, Mr. Lincoln was among the first to offer his services, and was elected captain of a company of Illinois volunteers, at the head of which he distinguished himself during the brief yet effective campaign. He was afterward elected to the State Legislature, taking decided ground as a Whig of the Henry Clay school. In 1846 he was elected a member of` the 30th Congress, where he acted with the Whig party; and at the National Convention which nominated General Scott for President, in June, 1852, he was elected to represent Illinois in the Central Whig Committee. Yeoman’s service did he render in that campaign.

In 1856 Mr. Lincoln entered actively into the Republican contest; and two years later a Convention of that party nominated him in opposition to Judge Douglas, as Republican Senator from the State of Illinois. He was defeated, as is known, but lost none of his reputation with the party.

In May, 1860 he was nominated for the Presidency by the Republican Convention at Chicago, and was duly elected in November. His Inaugural in March has already been laid before the readers of the Weekly.

Last week a Committee of the Virginia Convention waited upon him. to ascertain his views. He replied to them as follows: “To Hon. Messrs. Preston, Stuart, and Randolph:

“GENTLEMEN — As a Committee of the Virginia Convention, now in session, you present me a preamble and resolution in these words:

“‘Whereas, In the opinion of this Convention, the uncertainty which prevails in the public mind as to the policy which the Federal Executive intends to pursue toward the seceded States, is extremely injurious to the industrial and commercial interests of the country, tends to keep up an excitement which is unfavorable to the adjustment of the pending difficulties and threatens a disturbance of the public peace; therefore,

“‘Resolved, That a committee of three delegates be appointed to wait on the President of the United States, present to him this preamble, and respectfully ask him to communicate to this Convention the policy which the Federal Executive intends to pursue in regard to the Confederate States.’

“In answer I have to say that having, at the beginning of my official term, expressed my intended policy as plainly as I was able, it is with deep regret and mortification I now learn there is great and injurious uncertainty in the public mind as to what that policy is, and what course I intend to pursue. Not having as yet seen occasion to change, it is now my purpose to pursue the course marked out in the Inaugural Address. I commend a careful consideration of the whole document as the best expression I can give to my purposes. As I then and therein said, I now repeat, ‘The power confided in me will be used to hold, occupy, and possess property and places belonging to the Government, and to collect the duties and imposts; but beyond what is necessary for these objects, there will be no invasion, no using of force against or among the people any where.’ By the words ‘property and places belonging to the Government,’ I chiefly allude to the military posts, and property which were in possession of the Government when it came into my hands. But if, as now appears to be true, in pursuit of a purpose to drive the United States authority from those places, an unprovoked assault has been made upon Fort Sumter, I shall hold myself at liberty to repossess it, if I can, like places which had been seized before the Government was devolved upon me; and in any event I shall, to the best of my ability, repel force by force. In case it proves true that Fort Sumter has been assaulted, as is reported, I shall, perhaps, cause the United States mails to be withdrawn from all the States which claim to have seceded, believing that the commencement of actual war against the Government justifies and possibly demands it. I scarcely need to say that I consider the military posts and property situated within the States which claim to have seceded as yet belonging to the Government of the United States as much as they did before the supposed secession. Whatever else I may do for the purpose, I shall not attempt to collect the duties and imposts by any armed invasion of any part of the country; not meaning by this, however, that I may not land a force deemed necessary to relieve a fort upon the border of the country. From the fact that I have quoted a part of the Inaugural Address, it must not be inferred that I repudiate any other part, the whole of which I reaffirm, except so far as what I now say of the mails may be regarded as a modification.”

General P. G. T. Beauregard

WE publish herewith a portrait of General Beauregard, the commander of the Confederate forces at Charleston, to whom Major Anderson surrendered on 13th. General P. G. Toutant Beauregard was born on his father’s plantation, near New Orleans. His father was a wealthy and influential Louisiana planter. His mother—born Reggio—was of Italian origin, and descended from the ducal Reggio family of Italy. General Beauregard entered the United States Military Academy at West Point at an early age, where he graduated in 1838, taking the second honors in a class of forty-five graduates, and was appointed a Second Lieutenant in the First regiment of Artillery, which commission he only held for one week ere he was transferred to the Corps of Engineers. He was promoted to a First Lieutenantcy in June, 1839, and in that capacity served with great distinction during the Mexican War. He was twice brevetted “for gallant and meritorious conduct” in the field, the first time as Captain for the battles of Contreras and Churubusco, to date from August 20, 1847, and again as Major for the battle of Chepultepec, to date from the 13th of September of that year: Major Beauregard was wounded in the assault upon the Garita de Beleu in the city of Mexico. On his return home he was presented with an elegant sword. He. was subsequently placed by the Government in charge of the construction of the Mint and Custom house at New Orleans, as well as of the fortifications on and near the mouth of the Mississippi; General B. is about forty-three years of age, in the prime of life and vigorous health, erect as a soldier, well made, and remarkably active.

A Charleston paper gives publicity to two incidents in General Beauregard’s career:

(Article referred to is from the Charleston Mercury and has previously presented in this e-journal—See Skedaddle issue 1861—10, [Vol.2 Issue 10])

The Call for Volunteers.

THE Secretary of War has addressed the following circular to the Governors of States:

“WAR DEPARTMENT, WASHINGTON, April —, 1861. “SIR,—Under the Act of Congress ‘ for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections; repel invasions,’ etc., approved February 28, 1795, I have the honor to request your Excellency to cause to be immediately detached from the militia of your State the quota designated in the table below, to serve as infantry or riflemen for the period of three months, unless sooner discharged.

” Your Excellency will please communicate to me the time at or about which your quota will be expected at its rendezvous, as it will be met as soon as practicable by an officer or officers to muster it into the service and pay of the United States. At the same time the oath of fidelity to the United States will be administered to every officer and man.

” The mustering officer will be instructed to receive no man under the rank of commissioned officer who is in years apparently over forty-five or under eighteen, or who is not in physical strength and vigor.”

New York Replies.

On 16th the Legislature passed a bill authorizing the Governor to call out thirty thousand State troops, to be placed at the disposal of the President, and appropriating three million dollars therefore. The bill, slightly amended from the form in which it passed the Assembly, was passed by the Senate, and returned to the former body, which concurred in the amendments almost unanimously, there being but one negative vote. Great feeling and enthusiasm were manifested in both Houses on the subject. Part of the troops have already gone forward to Washington.

So Do Massachusetts,

Without waiting the official requisition for troops, but acting upon the report sent to the press of the country, Governor Andrews telegraphed to the President as follows :

” The quota of troops required of Massachusetts is ready. How will you have them proceed ?”

The Secretary of War responded:

” Send them by rail.”

Part have gone forward by rail, the rest by steamer.

And Connecticut,

Governor Buckingham, of Connecticut, telegraphs to the Secretary of War, “Your requisition will have immediate attention.”

And Vermont,

Governor Fairbanks, of Vermont, responds that one regiment of Green Mountain boys will be immediately raised.

And Ohio,

Governor Dennison says to the Secretary of War,” Your dispatch calling on Ohio for thirteen regiments is just received, and will be promptly responded to.

Adjutant-General Carrington has just issued orders carrying into effect the military laws just enacted by the General Assembly of Ohio, and providing for 6000 regular militia, besides the militia of reserve of not less than 35,000 men, to be subject to immediate transfer into the regular force. The regular militia has been organized into twenty-five regiments, which, when upon a war basis, would make 25,000 men. On Saturday his office was thronged by persons eagerly inquiring for the news, and offering their services, irrespective of party, to support the General Government.

Governor Dennison telegraphs that Ohio will furnish her quota of twelve thousand men, and more if needed.

And Wisconsin,

Governor Randall, of Wisconsin, telegraphs,” The call for one regiment will be promptly responded to, and further calls when made.”

And Rhode Island,

Governor Sprague tendered, by telegraph, 1000 men, with himself as leader. The tender is accepted, but that State is not required to send more than one regiment.

And Maine,

Governor Washburne, of Maine, telegraphs the Secretary of War as follows:” Your dispatch is received, and your call will be promptly responded to. The people of Maine, of all parties, will rally with alacrity to the maintenance of the Government and the Union.”

And Illinois,

Governor Yates has issued a proclamation to convene the Legislature of this State at Springfield on the 23d April, for the purpose of enacting such laws and adopting such measures as may be deemed necessary upon the following subject, to wit : The more perfect organization and equipment of the militia of the State, and placing the same upon the best footing to render efficient assistance to the General Government in preserving the Union, enforcing the laws, protecting the property and rights of the people, and also the raising of such money and other means as may be required to carry out the foregoing objects.

The troops are mustering, and ready to go forward.

And Pennsylvania,

Governor Curtin has directed his Adjutant to forthwith establish two camps, one in eastern and the other in western Pennsylvania, for the mustering of the thirteen ,thousand men required from that State; and he has also authorized his Adjutant to issue orders to the different division officers to act promptly.

Pennsylvania has promised 100,000 men if necessary.

And Minnesota,

Governor Ramsey, of Minnesota, offered the President one thousand volunteers from his State, yesterday, and leaves for home today to raise the single regiment of seven ‘ hundred asked for.

And Maryland,

Maryland responds promptly, it is said, to the requisition upon her for three thousand troops.

Governor Hicks was waited upon on the 16th at his hotel by Company F, the Governor’s Guard, who informed him that they had come to sing the “Star Spangled Banner” with him. The Governor expressed pleasure at the visit, and said he was too hoarse to join with them, but he would tell them he was still under the Stars and Stripes. The “Star Spangled Banner” was then sung by over fifty voices, with fine effect. The Governor thanked the visitors for the courtesy, and said he hoped the song would be sung on all fitting occasions forever. The Union must be preserved.

A Voice. ” Governor, you have done your duty so far.” GOVERNOR. “Yes, and I intend to keep doing so.” Voice. ” We’ll stand by you.”

Much enthusiasm was manifested.

A telegram dated Baltimore, April 14, says: The Union feeling in this city has been unmistakably displayed since Friday. Men with cockades and secession emblems have been chased by crowds, and protected by the police.

The bark Fanny Fenshaw hoisted the secession flag today, and a crowd compelled a boy on the vessel to take it down. The captain afterward rehoisted it, and required a detachment of thirty police to protect it from the people. The indignation is intense. All the other vessels in port hoisted the American flag. The captain is a Union man, but hoisted the flag under instructions from the owners of the vessel, the Messrs. Curry, of Richmond, Virginia.

Another of same date says: The Union feeling here is strong this morning The Minute-Men organization, of 2500 strong, who have been drilling ever since the Presidential election as a military organization, threw out the Stars and Stripes this morning from their headquarters, with the motto, ” The Union and the Constitution.”

And New Jersey.

General Hatfield has issued the following call: “HEADQUARTERS, HUDSON BRIGADE, N. J. S. M., “HOBOKEN, April 16, 1861.

“To THE OFFICERS OF THE BRIGADE, In view of the proclamation of the President of the United States, calling forth the militia of the several States to aid in the protection and execution of the laws, and the expected immediate call for the required quota of troops from this State by the Governor, Commander-in-Chief, I deem it most expedient to call together the immediate representatives of the several companies, to consult and determine what duty and honor require of us under these circumstances.

“I have no authority, by my office, or your enlistment in the organized militia of the State, to offer your services, uninstructed by you, to the General Government.

“I therefore request that the commissioned officers will assemble on Friday evening next, the 19th inst., at eight o’clock, at the Hudson House, Jersey City.

“James T. HATFIELD, Brig.-Gen.”

Kentucky Refuses.

“FRANKFORT, April 16, 1861. ” HON. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War;

” Your dispatch is received. In answer, I say emphatically that Kentucky will furnish no troops for the wicked purpose of subduing her sister Southern States.

“B. MAGOFFIN, Governor of Kentucky.”

A dispatch dated Louisville, April 16, says: “A large and enthusiastic meeting of citizens opposed to President Lincoln’s war policy was held tonight. About 3000 people were present.

“Resolutions were unanimously adopted that Kentucky will not permit the marching of troops to the Confederate States, but share the latter’s destiny, if war must come; sympathizing with the patriotic men in the free States, and indorsing Governor Magoffin’s response to Secretary Cameron.”

Another dated Paducah, April 16, says: “A meeting, irrespective of party, J. B. Husbands presiding, last night adopted resolutions recommending the government to immediately convene the Legislature, that we are with the South in interest and action; that the Governor be requested to issue a proclamation for a Convention at Frankfort at as early a day as practicable, to consider the position and future destiny of Kentucky; calling on the people of Kentucky to ignore party feelings and oppose to the last extremity the coercive and fratricidal policy of the Executive.”

So Does Missouri.

The State Journal publishes the following reply from Governor Jackson to Secretary Cameron:


“JEFFERSON CITY, MISSOURI, April 17, 1861. ‘SIR,—Your dispatch of the 15th instant, making a call on Missouri for four regiments of men for immediate service, has been received. There can be, I apprehend, no doubt but these men are intended to form a part of the President’s army to make war upon the people of the seceded States. Your requisition, in my judgment, is illegal, unconstitutional, and revolutionary in its objects, inhuman and diabolical, and can not be complied with. Not one man will, of the State of Missouri, furnish or carry on such an unholy crusade.

“C. F. JACKSON, Governor of Missouri.”

So Does North Carolina.

The following dispatch has been published :

” RALEIGH, April 15, 1861. “HON. SIMON CAMERON, Secretary of War ;

” Your dispatch is received, and, if genuine, which its extraordinary character leads me to doubt, I have to say in reply that I regard the levy of troops made by the Administration for the purpose of subjugating the States of the South, as in violation of the Constitution and a usurpation of power. I can be no party to this wicked violation of the laws of the country, and to this war upon the liberties of a free people. You can get no troops from North Carolina. I will reply more in detail when your call is received by mail.

“JOHN W. ELLIS, Governor of North Carolina.”

A dispatch, dated Wilmington, North Carolina, April 15, says: The Proclamation is received with perfect contempt and indignation. The Union men openly denounce the Administration. The greatest possible unanimity prevails. There were great rejoicings here on Saturday on the reception of the news of the reduction of Fort Sumter.

The Feeling in Tennessee.

A dispatch dated Nashville, April 13, says: An enthusiastic public meeting was held here tonight. Resolutions were unanimously adopted, condemning the Administration for the present state of affairs, and sympathizing with the South. The Hon. Mr. Zollicoffer and others spoke.

Another, dated Memphis, April 14, says : Great excitement prevails in this city over the news from Charleston, and great crowds are in the streets. The event is being celebrated by cannon firing, rockets, bonfires, music, and dancing.

Another, dated Memphis, April 16, says: There is intense excitement here. A tremendous meeting tonight resolved Memphis out of the Union. There are no Union men now here.

A dispatch from Montgomery says: General Pillow guarantees to raise 10,000 men in Tennessee in twenty days, if President Davis will accept of them, and there is no doubt expressed but what he will accept of the offer.

Were There Any Men Killed at Fort Moultrie?

A private letter received by a gentleman in this city from a friend in Charleston, gives some new and interesting particulars respecting the bombardment of Fort Sumter. The writer states that such was the effectiveness of Major Anderson’s fire that thirty of the secessionists in Fort Moultrie were killed, besides many wounded, and that the Stevens Battery was silenced, and the Floating Battery half shot away. He extols the courage and skill of the garrison, and intimates that the casualties of the enemy were more numerous than they wish to acknowledge.

New York Herald

The Situation of Affairs.

The conflicting reports of the last few days relative to the situation of affairs at and around Washington have reached a somewhat satisfactory solution in the intelligence which we are enabled to give in our columns today, at least as far as the movements of the regiments despatched from the North are concerned. It is certain now that the Seventh regiment of New York and the Massachusetts regiment have arrived safely in Washington. The Seventh and a part of the Massachusetts regiment took the line of march from Annapolis early on Wednesday and reached the junction at ten o’clock on Thursday morning. From this point they took the train from Washington, where they arrived in the afternoon and marched through Pennsylvania avenue to the President’s house, and thence to the War Department. The train which took them on returned to the junction at four o’clock in the afternoon, and carried the remainder of the Massachusetts regiment to the junction, where they were ordered to remain and guard the road. The Seventh, it is said, rebuilt the bridges and repaired the road on their route.

The steam transport Baltic, which arrived here yesterday from Annapolis, which port she left on Thursday morning, reports that the Twelfth regiment had started for Washington, and were then twelve miles on their march to the junction, and, as the road was open, the gallant Seventh had already passed safely over. There is no doubt that the Twelfth reached Washington in a few hours. In all probability the Seventy first and Sixth regiments, which left New York on the same day (Sunday last) also arrived at the capital in the wake of the Twelfth.

The steamer Wyoming, which arrived at Perryville, Maryland, yesterday, reports that when she left Annapolis, at ten o’clock yesterday morning, two steamers of the New York fleet had just arrived there—the Marion and Montgomery—with the brig of war Perry as convoy and that the Sixty ninth regiment were then disembarking. As the Sixty ninth went on the James Adger, however, it may be that the officers of the Wyoming were mistaken either as to the names of the New York steamers, or of the regiment then disembarking at Annapolis; but as the whole fleet which left here on Tuesday comprising the Alabama with the Eighth on board, the James Adger with the Sixty ninth, the Marion with the thirteenth (Brooklyn regiment), and the Montgomery with the cavalry troop of the Eighth, together with the brig Perry as convoy, were seen at anchor in the Chesapeake, by the Keystone State, which arrived here from Washington yesterday, near the mouth of the Potomac, and were passed by the Baltic farther up the bay, there can be very little doubt that the whole arrived at Annapolis, and that the three regiments are in Washington by this time.

We learn on the authority of Captain Sherman, of the Vermont Arsenal, who came from Washington in the Keystone State, that the Potomac was open, no obstructing batteries being planted on its shores by the secessionists and the heights of Georgetown and Arlington being both held by the government. And it is to be regretted that the government did not send the Pawnee to the mouth of the river with this intelligence so that the vessels from New York might have gone direct to Washington, and thus saved the troops a tedious march of sixteen miles from Annapolis to the junction, besides enabling them to reach Washington one day earlier.

As to the movements of the rebel troops, we have also some reliable information. One of our special correspondents at Pensacola Florida was compelled to leave there very hurriedly by the secessionists on the 21st. inst. He reached Montgomery on the 26th and with considerable difficulty got safely as far North as Cincinnati, from which point he telegraphed us yesterday. He reports the condition of things at Fort Pickens to be in status quo. The rebels have given up the idea of attacking it for the present until they get reinforcements and are supplied with columbiads, the small forty two pounders they have not being sufficient to do any damage to the fort. Six thousand rebel volunteers are said to be ready for service at Richmond, which number it is calculated, will be increased to 25,000 at the close of the week. There seems to be very little doubt that both Mr. Davis and Mr. Stephens are there now; Gen. Beauregard is, in all probability, still in Charleston. A State Battery has been erected at Yorktown, and another at a point three miles above Richmond. At Harper’s Ferry 4,000 men were stationed; but it is supposed that they are under orders to move at once to a location nearer the federal capital. Twenty five hundred secession troops are at Norfolk.

Such are the movements up to the last accounts of troops of both hostile parties. Other events, however, appear to be transpiring in Maryland, which bear somewhat on the course of events. It is reported from Harrisburg that a considerable flight of negroes into Pennsylvania is taking place, and that an attack has been made by a body of Marylanders on the village of Hanover, York county, Pennsylvania, in consequence. It is said that whole families are leaving Maryland and flying into the counties of Adams, York and Franklin, Pennsylvania, and that the fear has become general in the border counties of Maryland that the departure of the whole slave population is imminent. Over 500 slaves have already ran off.

Rumors reach us from Baltimore that a remarkable change of sentiment in favor of the Union has taken place there, which is indicated in a measure by the tone of some portions of the press, and other circumstances but the reports need confirmation. Our latest intelligence from that quarter represents that city as still under the control of the secessionist mob, though quiet.

Washington may be considered safe for the present. It is stated that there is no want of provisions there, and that the government has made ample arrangements for all necessary supplies.

The News.

A meeting of the Home Guard was held at the Astor House yesterday evening, at which it was decided to tender the command to Mr. George Law. The Guard is to be composed of twenty thousand men, all to be able bodied and active. They will be armed with rifles, and will soon be ready for service. Mr. Law will meet a committee at the Astor House this morning to inform them whether he will accept the responsible position offered him or not.

The American Telegraph Company will commence receiving messages from Washington this morning. Those deposited at the office here (21 Wall street) before half past one o’clock of each day, will reach Washington the same evening. Arrangements are being made by which an almost hourly communication will be made with Washington. The press will thus be enabled to furnish to the public a much fuller and more reliable idea of the state of affairs at Washington than they have done for some days past.

The departure of Col. Ellsworth’s Fire Zouaves has been postponed until Sunday, when they will leave in the Baltic for Washington. Two stands of colors are to be presented to them—one by Mrs. John Jacob Astor, Jr. and one by the ladies of the Astor House.

The ex-members of the Sixty ninth regiment, now at Washington, and their friends, intend forming immediately another Irish volunteer regiment, and for this purpose a meeting is to be held on Monday evening next, at the headquarters of the Sixty ninth regiment, No. 42 Prince street.

The Democratic Republican General committee met at Tammany Hall last evening, and adopted a series of patriotic resolutions, endorsing the action of President Lincoln in calling out volunteers to enforce the laws. Even old Tammany denies the right of secession, and evinces a determination to give a hearty support to the government.

During the whole of yesterday Major Anderson was very much indisposed, and kept quiet in his own apartments at the Brevoort House. He has been troubled with a slight cough for some time past, and evidently stands much in need of rest and quietness. A number of visiters called on the Major yesterday, but were not so numerous as on previous days. Several military companies marched past the Brevoort House yesterday, and amongst them was the newly formed German regiment, who now muster about one thousand strong.

A meeting of the ladies of the congregation of Trinity church and of St. Pauls’, St. Johns’ and Trinity chapels, to the number of about one hundred and fifty, took place yesterday morning in a Sunday school room of St. John’s chapel, for the purpose of providing articles for the hospitals and the use of the United States Army. A committee of three ladies from each congregation was nominated and a subscription list opened, which was headed by Miss Jones, Mrs. J. J. Astor and Mrs. Remsen with $100 each. Other sums, varying in amount, were also subscribed.

The Constitutional

(Alexandria, LA)

We are United.

The tocsin of war has been sounded through the length and breadth of the land. Lincoln has at last unmasked himself, and his mad policy stands revealed in all its damnable and unmistakable purposes. In his madness he has done for the Southern States what was considered by many to be absolutely necessary to maintain a distinct and powerful government. He has united all the slave States as one man, and they are now banded together, an unwavering and impenetrable phalanx, ready and determined to defend and vindicate their rights to the last extremity.

As one of those who strongly dissented from the dormant party in the mode of secession, and the object for which I contended—a union of the slave States—is now attained, there can be no longer but one voice in the land. There is now but one purpose—one heart—one destiny. One Who Loves His Country Better Than Party.

Telegraph— A Perfect “Lying Machine”

We publish in another column the latest telegraphic intelligence received here. Our readers should not place too much confidence in them as the telegraph has become a perfect “lying machine” and dispatches are sent over the lines, for the purpose of misleading the people. The reported non-resignation of Gen. Scott  we believe to be false in every particular.

Secession of “Old Virginia”

On Saturday last the news of the secession of “Old Virginia” was received here with the wildest delight. A salute of eight guns was fired on the occasion, under the superintendence of our chief gunner Lieut.-Col. Russel. The secession of Virginia has produced the desired effect, and all of the border States will soon follow. Co-operation has at last been accomplished.

Great Excitement in St. Martinsville

The annexed paragraph is from a correspondent of the New Orleans Crescent, dated St. Martinsville, April 20:

Mr. Editor—There is great excitement in St. Martinsville. Everything, from the cradle to the crutch, is in motion. Lincoln was hanged and burnt in effigy here, last night, amidst great rejoicings of the people. On the 15th inst., all the young men in the town and vicinity of St. Martinsville came forth and registered their names as volunteers, and are to be seen every day since actively operating on the parade ground from 10 o’clock A.M. till night. Their gallant Captain, Alcibiad Deblanc, left for New Orleans, on the 16th inst., to procure the necessary equipments, and enroll for immediate equipments, and enroll for immediate service. The ranks are filling up every day from New Iberia, Breaux Bridge, and Fausse Pointe. The colored men here are getting up a very good company.

The Scientific American

Civil War Inaugurated.

Reluctantly we recall the deplorable fact that civil war has actually broken out in our own country, where peace, happiness and financial prosperity have so long existed.

For some time past a feeling of animosity has prevailed in some of the remote Southern States against the people of the Northern States, who have been charged with imbibing hostile feelings toward the South, for the sentiments there existing on the subject of African slavery.

Soon after the election of Abraham Lincoln to the Presidential Chair, the citizens of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas formed themselves into a Southern Confederacy, and after meeting in convention, they adopted a constitution, and elected Hon. Jefferson Davis, formerly member of Congress from Mississippi, President of the Confederated States.

The first step of these Secessionists was the seizure of various forts, arsenals, custom houses, and other public buildings belonging to the Federal Government, and their occupation in opposition to the will of the Federal authorities. Fort Sumter, in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, and Fort Pickens, in the Gulf of Mexico, nearly opposite the city of Pensacola, Fla., the Secessionists were unable to obtain. Fort Sumter has been garrisoned with only about seventy men, under command of Major Anderson, for several months; the authorities of the Confederated Government objected to the garrison being reinforced.

The secessionist forces have been busily engaged during the last three months in erecting batteries around Fort Sumter, for the purpose of reducing it. About the time these batteries were completed and manned, the stores at Fort Sumter became nearly exhausted, and the privilege which had been conceded to Major Anderson to get supplies from the city was withdrawn. This step rendered it imperative in the Federal authorities to either surrender the fort or to resort to force to provision the garrison. The latter course was decided upon, and naval ships with stores and soldiers were hastily fitted out and sent to Major Anderson’s relief.

The authorities of the Southern Confederacy, learning that it was the determination of the Federal Government to provision the forts at all hazards, made a hasty demand upon Major Anderson to surrender; this he refused to do, and at twenty minutes past four o’clock on the morning of April 12, before the vessels containing reinforcements arrived, General Beauregard, commander of the Southern forces, commenced a cannonade on Fort Sumpter. The fire was returned, and continued until Saturday afternoon, when Major Anderson struck the United States flag and surrendered.

The details of the battle have been telegraphed to our daily papers, but they are so conflicting in their tenor as to be unworthy of record.

It is proper to state that the history of our national troubles, of which we have only given an abstract, is not intended to instruct or enlighten our own people, who are thoroughly conversant with all the facts, but for our patrons in foreign countries, who find it difficult to understand our political affairs.

A telegraphic dispatch just received from Washington states that the President of the United States has issued a proclamation calling out 75,000 militia, and that the first service required of them will be the retaking of the fortifications. An extra session of Congress is also called to meet on the fourth of July next.

Richmond Enquirer

The Confederate Army.

The hope of the enemy is that some time will be necessary to organize and render efficient the forces that have been raised in Virginia and the other Southern States, for the present emergency. They have rushed forward to their country’s standard at a moment’s warning, the most of them without any experience in the battle field, and many of them without even the advantage of the militia drill with which the soldier is familiar. So say our Northern enemies. They should not deceive themselves. No people in the world are so accustomed to the use of the implements of war as the men of the South and the South-West. No people on the face of the earth are so much to be feared in hand to hand conflicts, both bayonet, small sword or bowie knife, as the defenders of the flag of the Southern Confederacy. The Yankees know all this, and at heart fully realize (no matter what they may say) the magnitude of the danger which they incur going into a war of invasion of the South.

The want of organization and discipline will doubtless be felt for a time in the Confederate army; but for a short time only. The forces of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas and Florida have been for some time in the field, and are now fully arrayed for battle. The forces from Virginia, N. Carolina and the other border slave States, which have been raised by the first blast of the bugle, are composed of the best material, and will be ready for effective service in a very few days. They will have the advantage of the best military instruction that can be had upon this continent; a number of the most distinguished and efficient officers of the late United States army being now actively engaged in our service. Gen. Scott  is reported to have said that he would rather have received the resignation of every general officer than Col. Lee—now Gen. Lee, Commander of the Volunteers of Virginia. Besides Gen. Lee, we have now here in Virginia, Gen. Johnston, Gen. J. B. Magruder, Col. Ruggles, Capt. Carr, Capt. Maury and others, all eminently distinguished for former service under the Government of the United States.

The Confederate Troops have confidence in their Commander-in-Chief—Jefferson Davis. They look upon mind as a council and his arm as a host. He is, indeed, one of the few men of the age who combine the Caesarian faculty of writing with the pen, speaking with the tongue, and fighting with the sword.

The army of the North has no advantage over the Confederate troops on the score of service or discipline. The former is composed chiefly of raw recruits, the most of whom are but little skilled in the use of the weapons which the Southerners handle with such fearful dexterity and effect.

Charleston Mercury

Arrival of Troops from South Carolina.

Brigadier General M.L. BONHAM, at the head of five hundred troops from South Carolina, arrived here last evening by the Southern train. A large crowd of citizens and an escort of Virginia troops awaited them at the depot. Cheer after cheer greeted the representatives of the gallant Palmetto State. As we looked along their ranks, we were struck with their bold and manly appearance. Every man of them looked a hero; dark and sunburnt from exposure, their fine countenances lighted up with martial ardor, their fine physique, their perfect equipments, all denoted an invincible and heroic race of men. The Virginians cheered South Carolina, and the South Carolinians, in return, heartily cheered for the Old Dominion. Richmond Enquirer.

Army and Navy Resignations.

A perfect stampede from the ranks of the army of the ‘Old Wreck’ is now going on. A large number of officers, citizens of the Border States, who have heretofore thought it their duty to remain in the service of the Government as long as the States to which they owed allegiance remained members of the Union, now that the bloody designs of LINCOLN are fully unmasked, and it is clearly seen that the Border States have determined to withdraw from an already disrupted Government, are throwing up their commissions as United States officers, and tendering their services to their respective States. The following additional resignations appear in our Baltimore exchanges, which came through yesterday.

MAY, who conducted himself in such a gallant manner during the Mexican war, has resigned his commission and retired to private life. He is now a resident of New York.

Col. JOHN H. WINDER resigned his commission in the Army on Saturday last. The Colonel is a son of the late Gen. WM. H. WINDER, of Baltimore, and served with distinction in the Mexican war.

ARMY OFFICERS RESIGNED. Captain Arnold Elzey, 2d Artillery, of Md.; Capt. Henry Heth, 10th infantry, of Va.; First Lieut. John Mullins, 2d dragoons, of Tenn.; Dr. J. M. Harden, Assistant Surgeon, of Miss.; First Lieut. Walter H. Jenifer, 2d cavalry, of Md. have resigned.

Midshipman FISKE is going South, together with others, to join the Southern army.

Sugar Planter

(West Baton Rouge, LA)

Our Parish Liberality.

Amongst the Delta Rifles and Tirailleurs, companies of this parish, now awaiting orders to march to the scene of conflict, are many poor, hard-working men whose families would suffer by their absence. This fact being made known, a subscription was immediately set on foot to raise means for their support, while a special session of the Police Jury has been convoked to levy a special tax for the same purpose, so that full provision may be made for supplying them with all comforts and necessaries, while their main supports are away at the war. This is indeed liberal, and speaks volumes for the high-minded generous people of our parish.


Fifteen hundred colored men have enrolled themselves into volunteer companies in New Orleans for active service when called upon.

Daily Advocate

 (Baton Rouge, LA)

Real Patriotism.

The noble example set by a couple of gentlemen of Natchez, is the first step in a most excellent movement that should become general throughout the Southern States. Assure the man who goes forth to fight the battles of his country that those nearest and dearest to him will be properly cared for during his absence, and you at once transfer him into a hero, and very materially lessen the burthens and cares of the campaign. The families of the volunteers should be well provided for. It is the duty of every citizen of the South who is unable to take part in the conflict, but who is none the less anxious to see it brought to a successful issue, to contribute his mite in accomplishing that much desired result.

We commend the following paragraph, from the Natchez Free Trader, to the attention of our readers:

Spirit of the Times.—Two gentlemen of this city, whose names they desire shall not be published, each agree to contribute the sum of one thousand dollars for the support of the families of those who have given, or may give, their services to the Confederacy in the field, whose families need such assistance. Others, we learn, will do likewise, and in amount sufficient to support the families of a platoon or more. This is the right spirit and the spirit of the times in the South.

Waukegan Gazette


War Spirit

The war spirit seems to have become general all over Lake County. From Millburn we have two letters giving glowing accounts of an enthusiastic meeting which was held there on Monday evening last, but our space forbids our publishing them both entire, as we should like to do, we must therefore content ourselves with giving such extracts as we can find room for. Edward Hearns, Esq. writes us that the meeting surpassed his power of description. He further says: “The whole is presented to my mind, confused but yet consistent, like a dream that flits in form yet constantly changing and still bearing some relation to the mind in matter and substance. I don’t know where to begin, nor how to disconnect what was so well connected. The resolves of the meeting and the enthusiasm manifested, with every thing so well in place and done with so much connected order, in the midst of what to one not understanding the call would have seemed a confused and tremendous disorder of unbounded joy.”

In speaking further of the meeting Mr. Hearne says: “The oldest and all who have lived here from the beginning, recollect no scene like it, the insides of the Meeting House crammed to its utmost capacity, the windows besieged, the doors thrown open, could not make room for seeing and hearing.”

In alluding to the parting with the Millburn boys, he further says: “And as we shook hands on Tuesday morning with this band of youthful patriots, we heard one noble girl say, “I wish I could go with them to nurse them if they are sick,” but I cannot finish without one further notice, the son of Mr. Gideon Thayer leaves behind him a bride of scarce 2 weeks to fight the mad and besotted traitor who would destroy the liberty of his country and honor, and who would render her declaration of independence a mockery before the civilization of the world.”

Mr. Richard Pantall, Secretary of the meeting writes, as follows, under date of April 23: “We had a glorious meeting here last night, men of all parties heartily joining. We raised nine volunteers in no time. It was resolved that a bounty of Ten dollars be given to each Volunteer and it was further resolved that we pledge ourselves to provide for the families of married men who volunteer.

The sum of one hundred and two dollars was raised immediately, twelve dollars was given as Tobacco money and the ninety will be divided amongst the Volunteers in accordance with the above resolution. One person was appointed in each adjacent School District, to solicit subscriptions for the relief of Families who are left without a provider.

Intense enthusiasm prevails and you may set Millburn down all right, every time.

Three cheers were given, with a will, for our Volunteers, then for our Flag; then for General Scott; three for Major Anderson and also three for the Union and the Constitution. We made the old Meeting House tremble, and then adjourned till next Saturday evening.

The following are the names of those who volunteered at Millburn. They have joined Capt. J. R. Hagunin’s Company at Chicago which was accepted by the Governor, and are now at Springfield:

Walter Hastings

Jas. Jamison

Wm. R. Wilson

Andrew Bensinger

Eli Thayer

Andrew P. White

Simon W. Ames

Henry Bater

Peter Strang, Jr.

John Hoffman

Diary of a Yankee in the Patent Office

by Horatio Nelson Taft

SATURDAY 27—Another fine day, rather warm. Troops from the North are pouring fast now. There is now here about eighteen thousand men under arms. All the Public Buildings are swarming like Beehives with soldiers, in fact the City is like a great camp, and not half are here yet. Got letter from Frank dated Fort Kearney. Went down to the Ave after dinner, saw two thousand troops pass, who got in today. Pres Lincolns two boys were here today to see mine. Juliet was at the Pres. Got fine Boquet from the garden.


A Rebel War Clerk’s Diary

by John Beauchamp Jones

April 27—We have had a terrible alarm. The tocsin was sounded in the public square, and thousands have been running hither and thither to know its meaning. Dispatches have been posted about the city, purporting to have been received by the governor, with the startling information that the U. S. war steamer Pawnee is coming up the James River for the purpose of shelling the city!

All the soldiery, numbering some thousands, are marching down to Rocketts, and forming in line of battle on the heights commanding the approaches. The howitzers are there, frowning defiance; and two long French bronze guns are slowly passing through Main Street in the same direction. One of them has just broken down, and lies abandoned in front of the Post-Office. Even civilians, by hundreds, are hurrying with shot-guns and pistols to the scene of action, and field officers are galloping through the streets. Although much apprehension is apparent on many faces, it is but just to say that the population generally are resolved to make a determined defense. There is no fear of personal danger; it is only the destruction of property that is dreaded. But, in my opinion, the Pawnee is about as likely to attempt the navigation of the River Styx, as to run up this river within shelling distance of the city.

I walked down to the lower bridge, without even taking a pocket-pistol, and saw the troops drawn up in line of battle awaiting the enemy. Toward evening the howitzers engaged in some unprofitable practice, shelling the trees on the opposite side.

It was a false alarm, if not something worse. I fear it is an invention of the enemy to divert us from the generally conceived policy of attacking Washington, and rousing up Maryland in the rear of Lincoln.

Met with, and was introduced to, Gov. Letcher, in the evening, at the Enquirer office. He was revising one of his many proclamations; and is now undoubtedly as zealous an advocate of secession as any man. He said he would be ready to fight in three or four days; and that he would soon have arrangements completed to blockade the Potomac by means of formidable batteries.

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Copy Right, Copy Sense is the product of quite a bit of studying and research. I try to lay copyright out in a way that makes "sense."

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Skedaddle e-journal is in its second year of publication. 

The first volume, with four issues, was published in 2004. Each issue contained a variety of articles, poems, and images, with no particular focus other than the American Civil War. 

In Volume 2, the focus is on day-to-day news from newspapers and other sources, starting with January 1, 1861 and ending on December 31, 1861.  In the initial issue of this volume, Lincoln is not yet inaugurated and the only state that has seceded is South Carolina.

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