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April 23                       April 25

The Interior of Fort Sumter during the Bombardment.

April 24, 1861

for April 24, 1861

A Chronological History of the Civil War in America

  • Fort Smith, Ark., seized by the rebels.

Daily Times

(Leavenworth, KS)

The Lafayette Guards.

In view of the present dangerous situation of the country, our citizens who speak the French language have formed a military organization for the purpose of sustaining the Constitution of the United States and of Kansas. The name they have chosen is a peculiarly appropriate one. As the noble Lafayette aided in achieving American independence, so, now, those who are by birth his countrymen, are ready to assist in defending the institutions of their adopted land. The Lafayette Guards are a staunch set of men, most of them having already seen service. If called upon we are certain they will render effective support to Kansas and the Union. They number about seventy-five men. The following is a list of the officers:

David Block, Captain; Victor Sauley, 1st Lieutenant; C. Boisse, 2d do; Charles Carli, Ensign; Eugene Pelfresne, Adjutant; Joseph Nicholas, 1st Sergeant; J. Hallaux, 2d do; J. Gill, 3d do; B. Sabate, 4th do.

This will, in a short time, be one of the best companies in the city. Much credit is due to Charlie Carli, Joseph Nicholas, and others, for their efforts in forming it.

The Steuben Guard

The German company originally organized as the “Citizens’ Guard,” have changed their title to “The Steuben Guard,” in remembrance of the revolutionary patriot of that name. The adopted citizens are zealous and earnest in their support of the government. And it is natural that they should be. If our republic is not preserved, with it will perish the hopes of the brave defenders of free institutions, throughout the world. Hence, sympathy with the land of his nativity, as well as the land of his adoption, lends the foreign born citizen to be loyal and faithful to the Union.

From Fort Washita.:—Murders And Arrests—Lieut. Iverson, of Georgia, Resigned—Choctaws and Chickasaws Preparing to Secede!—Fort Washita Reinforced—More Disunion Deserters and Thieves.

Fort Washita, C. N.,}

March 31, 1861. }

Editor Times: Since my last, I have not had an opportunity to inform you of the doings here, until to-day.

Deputy Marshal Whiteside, and an escort of six U. S. troops from Fort Arbuckle, arrived here after an absence of six days, having in charge of Bill Hall, the murderer, and departed the following day with an escort of five men from this place for Van Buren, Arkansas. The troops from Arbuckle returned to that place. The escort from this place accompanied the Marshal to Johnson’s Station, on the California Overland Route, and then returned.

Two weeks ago the overland coaches made the trip from Fort Smith, Arkansas, to Nail’s Bridge, C. N., a distance of one hundred and seventy miles in twenty hours.

First Lieut. Alfred Iverson, of the 1st Cavalry, and son of Ex-Senator Iverson, of Georgia, has tendered his resignation to the Presidenthaving received the appointment of 3d Captain in the Georgia army.

Dixon Ouchaubby, a Chickasaw Indian, convicted of murder, was executed at Tishomingo City, on the 20th inst. Levi Colbert, another Chickasaw, confined in the jail at Tishomingo city, awaits the same fate, for murdering an Indian on Blue river, sometime since. A few days since a Choctaw Indian was brought to this place and confined in the Guard House, being charged with murdering two white men, near Red river.—The prisoner acknowledges killing one man, but denies killing the second. There is, however, sufficient proof that he committed both crimes.

Grass is growing finely. It will soon be sufficiently large to afford good grazing.—Peach trees have been in blossom for nearly a month, but late heavy frosts have destroyed this fruit for this season. The trees of the forest are putting on their summer costume.

The first number of the National Register made its appearance on the 16th inst. In politics it is an uncompromising secession sheet, beneath the contempt of honorable men.

The object of the Choctaw and Chickasaw National Convention, which met at Boggy Depot, C. N. was the sectionalizing and individualizing of their country. Resolutions to that effect, after a discussion of several days, were adopted by a vote of fifteen yeas to eight nays, and are to be submitted to the people, on the 6th of August, 1861, for ratification or rejection.

The General Council of the Choctaw Nation, in general assembly, passed, among a number of resolutions, expressing their feelings and sentiments in reference to the political disagreement existing between the Northern and Southern States of the Union, the following resolution:

“Resolved, further, That in the event a permanent dissolution of the American Union takes place, our many relations with the General Government must cease, and we shall be left to follow the natural affections, the educations, institutions and interests of our property, which indissolubly bind us in every way to the destiny of our neighbors and brethren of the Southern States, upon whom we are confident we can rely for the preservation of our rights, of life, liberty and property, and the continuance of many acts of friendship, generous counsel and fraternal support.”

The garrison of this post was yesterday reinforced by the arrival of Company E., (Capt. Prince’s,) 1st Infantry, from Fort Arbuckle, which has been ordered to take post here.—Capt. Prince assumes the command of this fort.

The fort has not yet been taken by the Secessionists, as the Eastern papers have it. Some even go as far as to give an account of the surrender of the government property to the traitors by Capt. Carr. These and similar paragraphs going the rounds in the Eastern papers concerning this fort, are infamously false, and do great injustice to the brave and gallant commanding officer.

A few sympathizers with the Southern rabble, have deserted, taking with them horses, pistols, carbines, and everything they could lay hands upon; but as this was only following the example set by Floyd, Cobb and others, it will have no effect upon the morality of the community at large in the Rhett-led Confederacy.


The Leavenworth Boys, at the Fort

The Leavenworth boys, at the Fort, are in good spirits and improving rapidly in military tactics. Many acceptable presents have been sent to them by our citizens. They have received a quantity of tobacco and pipes, some very nice edibles, and various little “nic-nacs.” One thoughtful and public-spirited lady sent them a supply of towels, soap and matches.

The New York Herald

Departure of Troops.

Departure of the Eighth Regiment.—Over A Thousand Men, and a Heavy Battery Embarked on the Alabama and James Adger—Presentation of a Beautiful Flag, &C.

The Eighth regiment, (Washington Greys), New York State Militia, over one thousand strong, and with six six pounders, sailed last evening with sealed orders, to join probably, the forces at Washington. The marching orders were received very unexpectedly on Saturday afternoon, and the men responded to them with the greatest alacrity. Regiments were rapidly mustered, and drilled, new officers to supply vacancies, were elected, and new arms and equipments were amply provided, so that the Eighth started yesterday, one of the most efficient regiments in the service, and ready for almost immediate action.

THE MEN ASSEMBLED At the armory, over Centre street market, as early as six o’clock yesterday morning, and the ranks rapidly filled up until nine o’clock, the hour appointed for the start. The arrangements at the armory were admirable. Policemen were stationed at the door and none but members of the regiment were admitted at first. By this means the men were enabled to equip themselves undisturbed by the crowds of friends and outsiders which have embarrassed almost every other regiment, and to which we shall have occasion to allude frequently in this article. The men went quietly to work, therefore, and were got ready with a facility and comfort almost unparalleled. We have to notice in this regiment the same instances of self devotion and modest heroism now happily becoming so common among our people. The members are mostly mechanics, hardworking, industrious fellows, with no money to spare and with families to provide for. They did the best they could, however, and started. Men left their families, husbands their wives, not in that respect, but without hesitation and doubt. Colonel Lyons himself left sick members of his houshold. One of the Lieutenants obeyed the orders of a dying father, and parted from him probably never to meet on earth. Those angels who record the good, brave, generous, patriotic acts of men have need to be shorthand writers, now a days. Hardly a man joined the ranks of the Eighth regiment yesterday who had not sanctified his cause by some great self sacrifice. The number of recruits offered was so large that the officers were enabled to pick their men, and those taken were fine able bodied fellows, some of them moving in the first ranks of society, and all worthy of the excellent corps to which they are attached. Most of the recruits were in uniform and all were well armed and provided with straps, blankets, plates, cups, &c. under the direction of the Quartermasters, whom members of Gen. Hall’s  staff assisted. No man left with the regiment who was not well provided for and ready of efficient service.

THE SCENES AT THE ARMORY were, on account of the exclusion of the crowd, vastly more business and warlike than sentimental and affecting. The men smoked, chatted, enjoyed themselves, or occupied the time with receiving their supplies and fitting out their comrades. Most of them were armed with revolvers and bowie knives, but there were no superfluities carried, at least outside the knapsacks, unless a small flask of brandy and a pipe can be reckoned as such. The uniformed men were dressed in caps, grey pants and jackets, trimmed with black, and with heavy blue overcoats; the officers in dark blue caps, suits and overcoats, with gold trimmings. They all went to work like regulars, and at no armory was there less confusion and better order. Our men are evidently becoming accustomed to this sort of work, and take the thing as a matter of course. They said that they didn’t care where they were going, and had got over wanting to go to Washington; they went to obey orders and expected to fight, so they had made up their minds to it. When asked when their pay began they replied, ‘Pay? Pay? O yes; certainly. I really don’t know. Perhaps the Captain can tell you about it’—knowing nothing and caring less about it. It was not for that they enlisted. Testaments were at the company’s rooms for distribution, but were scarcely disturbed, as the men’s wives, sisters and mothers had taken that care upon themselves, and had furnished them with Bibles before hand. After nine o’clock the companies were mustered, armed and marched off to drill in the open air, as soon as possible and thousands of people witnessed these street drills. They were all armed with new muskets and bayonets from the Springfield Arsenal, which were received yesterday, and unpacked in the arsenal during the preparations. Quartermaster (Alderman) Cornell attended to this matter, and did it admirably. Under his direction also, boxes of powder, valises, bundles, and the officers’ luggage were sent down to the transport by express; and by a system of checks, like those at the railroads, he was able to obviate all difficulties and get rid of the troubles usually attendant upon the transportation of military baggage. After most of the companies had departed, the ladies and friends of the volunteers were permitted to enter, most unwisely, and then the men were hustled about, ‘Mid scenes of confusion,’ which might have been very appropriate at home, sweet home, but which were very much out of place at an armory. The policemen who admitted the friends and followers should be blamed, but their friends and followers should take a little thought to themselves. These everlasting good byes do those who stay at home no good, but weary, dispirit, perplex and confuse those who go. With all due allowances for the painful circumstances of many of the cases, we still think that the self denial of the soldier should be assisted by the self denial of his friends. Our city now is a camp, and we must all begin to act as if we realize it. Bid the boys good bye as often as you please while they are civilians, but after they enter the army, under orders, leave them to themselves, treat them as soldiers, don’t annoy or worry them or yourselves, and both you and they will be happier, calmer and in better trim after the last long look is over the ship started.


By eleven o’clock the companies had all started for the rendezvous, on Seventeenth street, Union square. The troops, acting as artillery, under command of Capt. Varian, an old, experienced and able officer, started first, in order to procure their cannon from the upper Arsenal, corner of Seventh avenue and Thirty fifth street. Until yesterday morning the artillery corps expected to take eight howitzers, like those of the Seventh regiment, which could be dragged and managed by hand. At three A. M., orders came that the government wished a heavy battery, and that six 6 pounders must be taken. Colonel Lyons acted upon his order immediately, and a committee was appointed to purchase the horses—four top each gun—and the harness necessary. Stalls for the horses were also fitted up on the James Adger steamer, and the troop was ordered to go, with the guns, by the same boat. The exempt members of the regiment held a meeting at Lafayette hall, and determined to escort their comrades to the boat, and the Armory thus being cleared, the crowd adjourned to Broadway and the square. Along the shady side of Broadway crowds were assembling; the way between Bleecher and Fourth streets was blocked up by a mass of people; fire engines were being stationed along the route, to ring their bells as the procession passed; more flags than ever were displayed and bodies of men were marching through the side streets to join the throngs on the great thoroughfare.


The stand erected for the Union meeting were crowded with people, the park was filled, and the streets were lined all the way round the enclosure. There were not as many people present, however, as has been usual here in New York, partly because the Sixty ninth attracted the greater part of the sight seeing people, and partly because the New Yorkers, with their usual adaptiveness, have become accustomed to these warlike displays, and take them quite as a matter of course. The engineers were first upon the ground, and Sergeant Trumbull was quietly presented with a revolver by the Masonic Arctums Lodge, of which he was a member, and which has sent away almost all its active masons in the various regiments. The G. L. Fox Guard, also marched up to escort the favorite Bowery actor and member of the Eighth, whose name they bear, and whom some of them disgraced during the day, by getting very much intoxicated, very disorderly and very anxious for a fight. One by one the companies arrived, and took up positions upon the shady sides of the surrounding streets. Crowds of handshaking friends, and kissing, crying women, thronged around. The men stretched out upon the stones, lay singling, cheering and conversing. Then the Adjutant arrived, and after a little delay, obtained the report from the Orderly Sergeant of


The officers are as follows:—Col. Lyons, Lieut. Colonel Waterbury, Major Wentworth, Adjutant D. B. Keeler, Jr. Quartermaster, Cornell; Asst. Quartermaster, J. C. Smith; Paymaster, M. H. Cashman; Commissary, A. C. Smith, Jr.; Surgeon, Dr. T. F. Smith; Asst. Surgeon, Foster Swift; Chaplain, Mr. Rutter.

Company A—Captain, Johnson; First Lieutenant, Day; Second Lieutenant, Stocking; First Sergeant, Wood. One hundred men, three officers and four sergeants.

Company B—Captain, Swaney; First Lieutenant, A. G. Ennis; Second Lieutenant, M. W. Wall; First Sergeant, Nathaniel Stetson. One hundred and six men, three officers and four sergeants.

Company C—Captain, Berger; First Lieutenant, Appleton; Second Lieutenant, R. Dimphey; First Sergeant, Messler. Eighty men, three officers and four sergeants.

Company D—Captain, Lawrence; First Lieutenant, Cohen; Second Lieutenant, —–; First Sergeant, Fox. One hundred men, two officers and three sergeants.

Company E—Captain, Griffin; First Lieutenant, Dutch; Second Lieutenant, Hurlbut; Third Lieutenant, G. I. Fox; First Sergeant, Martin Balis. One hundred and eight men, four officers and four sergeants.

Company F—Captain, Buck; First Lieutenant, D. Allen; Second Lieutenant, J. Diamond; First Sergeant, Hennessey. Men, 103; officers, 2; sergeants, 4.

Company G—Captain, Carr; First Lieutenant, Cheidley; Second Lieutenant, Decker; First Sergeant, Young. Men, 102; officers, 3; sergeants, 4.

Engineers—Captain, Walton; First Sergeant; J. R. Turnbull. Men, 22.

Troop—Captain, Varrian; First Lieutenant, Burns; Second Lieutenant, Cornell; First Sergeant, J. E. Smith. Men, 112; officers, 3 Sergeants, 4.

Band—Leader, D. Mazzinghe. Men, 25.

Drummers—First Sergeant, Ryer; Second Sergeant, Parson. Men, 24.

By the overplus in some of the companies, and by several recruits falling in afterwards, all of the regular companies, except that of the engineers; were equalized at one hundred men each. The band is part of that attached to the United States receiving ship North Carolina. Twenty five members of the Seventh, and seven of the Seventy first, went on with the Eighth, as did also six men of Company H, Seventh Massachusetts regiment, under command of Lieut. Stark, (A descendant of the old General), who was left behind here sick when his regiment passed through.


The regiment was brought into line and kept standing in the hot, broiling sun for a long time, awaiting the arrival of the troop, with its artillery. The delay caused by the necessity of purchasing horses, harness, and stores, detained the command for many hours, however. The detachment of police marched on the ground under command of Sergeants Parkes and Castle, were marched away again. The soldiers, at rest, sang the ‘Star Spangled Banner,’ and ‘Dixie Land.’ At two o’clock the line was again broken, and the companies rendezvoused about on curbstones, and sang patriotic songs, talked to their friends, drank water and something stronger and cheered the weary hours away. Britton of the Everett House, sent out a plentiful supply of sandwiches for a luncheon. The crowd gradually dispersed, and those who remained seated themselves upon the pavements, which a large quantity of broken glass made by no means to comfortable. A few members of the Highland guard appeared in bare legs and kilts. The hours waned away and the comparatively few people who remained, stared, sat down, felt weak, ate, drank, returned home, recruited, came back and repeated de capo. Mounted recruits dashed about upon what Bryant calls their gum Arabic steeds. Two of the Fox Guard started a fight, and were conveyed away by the police. Then, at a little after four, the companies were marched down Fourteenth street, and finally, the crowd increasing all the while, were formed into line on Fifth avenue. Sergeant Bogert arrived with another squad of police. Ex- Colonel Avery, and several other ex Colonels took charge of the two hundred and fifty exempt and stay at home members. The long awaited troop arrived with its cannon. Colonel Lyons was saluted and took command of his regiment. Then the American flag was saluted amid hearty cheers, and then followed;—

A PRESENTATION OF COLORS to the regiment by Dr. Barrow, on behalf of mesdames Mrs. Chas. C. Crawford, Mrs. Chas. Chandler and Mrs. Chas. A. Seacor. The colors consisted of a beautiful flag, worked in the finest silk. Upon one side were the Stars and Stripes, and upon the other, on a ground of white silk, the American eagle, exquisitely worked in feathers, and with the motto, E. Pluribus Unum. Dr. Barrow stated that the flag had been made by Mrs. Seacor thirty three years ago, and had been very highly valued by the family. The ladies sent it, however, with the regiment with which Mrs. Seacor’s on went, and knew that it would never be disgraced. Colonel Lyons briefly replied, saying that he received the flag on behalf of the regiment with the greatest emotion. He had been with his men for years and knew them well. That flag would never be despoiled except over their dead bodies. (Cheers) We will return it to you, or leave our bones with it. (Great cheering.) That flag I shall always follow, no mater at what sacrifice. We will return it to you, if we ever return (Cheers.) Again I thank the ladies, of whom we shall often think, and whom we hope to meet at some brighter and better time.


The regiment then slowly started, with frequent stoppages, on the march down Broadway. The crowd heartily cheered them as they advanced, and the soldiers were greeted with requests to pick out plantations for their friends, to which one of them most aptly replied by pointing to the escorts marching by and saying, ‘This is the home brigade, girls! Get them some white feathers!’ The streets were well lined all the way to the boat, and the people were very enthusiastic. Great amusement was afforded by the eccentric movements of members, but which was really composed of all the outsiders who could slip in under cover of a badge. If they were exempt, it must have been from any sort of drill. Part of the times they were squares of the Regiment and again were backing upon the artillery horses, which seemed to imagine themselves imitation Flora Temples and would not be restrained from a two twenty pace. These civilian escorts do no good, and do a great deal of harm. They break, up the line, embarrass the soldiers, invitiate and busy the officers, and injure the tout ensemble of the display. With some few exceptions they are got up to gratify a little personal vanity on the part of the escorters, but the public is tired of them. The greatest greeny no longer mistakes the rosetted men who march arm in arm ahead of the soldiers for recruits or volunteers. Everybody knows them, and no one is pleased with them.

During the way down one of the exempts, and old clergyman, fainted from the heat and excitement. The Zouaves Lafayette Guard, and fire companies cheered the passing soldiers. The line of march was through rough Canal street to Hudson, thence to Beach, and thence to Pier No. 36. In Beach street the soldiers were choked by a thick cloud of dust, which rendered them invisible. No outsiders were admitted to the dock, except by special order, and so the embarkation on board the Alabama, Capt. Schenck, was excellently and quickly accomplished. The artillery marched down to Pier No. 13, and went on board the James Adger. The shores and wharfs were crowded with a cheering, shouting mass of people. The seven members of the Seventy first, on board, were informed by Colonel Lyons that they could not be taken for want of room, but by the kindness of General Hall took passage in the Adger with the artillery. The Alabama was crowded with soldiers, and there was hardly room to stir on board here. Seven o’clock approached; the gangways were thrown down; a few weeping women ran about the dock; the ropes were thrown off; two of the men were left behind, as some men always will be; there was a great rush to the end of the pier and the ship—its black hull strongly relieved by the many hued mass of uniforms, flags, and handkerchiefs; its rigging clear cut against the rosy western sky, its departure saluted by cheers, cannoning, bell ringing and whistling—sailed with sealed orders, to be opened twenty miles at sea.

The Yachtsmen Moving.

We see that the members of the New York Yacht Club are to hold a meeting today for the purpose of considering what action they can take in conjunction with all the other classes of patriotic citizens to aid the government in this present crisis. It strikes us that the Yacht Club can be of infinite service by tendering their first class craft to act as despatch boats off the coast. Out of the fifty or sixty boats belonging to the club there are perhaps half a dozen fast sailing schooners which are just the thing for this work. In sailing this craft cannot be outdone by anything afloat, and are able for any weather; they can run into shallow waters, where our vessels of war cannot enter, and in case of a blockade of the Southern ports would be of great value in conveying information and instructions from point to point. They are capable of carrying an armament sufficient for their own defence, and in every respect are precisely the kind of vessel which the government needs at this moment. The Yacht Club, then, cannot do better than offer this class of yachts and their crews to the Secretary of the Navy for service as despatch boats.

The Custom House and the War.

The United States steamer Corwin, under the command of Lieutenant F. M. Brasher, has been stationed in the Narrows; the Vixen, Lieutenant Phelps, at Throgg’s Neck, and the Bibb at the Kills, under the orders of the Surveyor, for the purpose of intercepting any suspicious vessels that may attempt to leave the harbor. The guns of these vessels will command the channel at all times, therefore the commanders of the various craft in the harbor had better not try to skulk out after dark, or they will be sure to get caught.


The steamer John R. Thompson and the schooner Alice Gibson, both bound for Baltimore, were boarded by Inspectors Isaac and Archer before they left, and a strict inspection made of their cargo. Nothing was found on board contraband of war. The schooner Anna Morton was brought back from the Hook by the revenue steamer Mercury, but after an examination of her cargo, which was found to be correct, she was allowed to proceed on her voyage.


This schooner, which was suspected of being a privateer, had sailed as far as Barnegat, but had to put back from some cause, and anchored on Jersey Flats, where she was boarded the Revenue officers and taken into Atlantic dock. When searched nothing contraband was found on board, and the owners expressed ignorance of anything of the kind having been ever shipped.

It would be as well for person giving information of suspected vessels, to be sure that they have some grounds for their statements, as much useless labor has been lately expended at a time when it was wanted elsewhere.


In consequence of the extra labor of the department, arising from the present excitement, Mr. Barney has had no time to consider the question of removals at present; therefore none will be made for a short time except from cause.

A company of volunteers marched through the Custom House yesterday to the music of the fife and drum, causing quite an excitement among the clerks, brokers and others.

How Long is This War to Last?

Some give it ninety days; but we will give it six months. In this armed movement to the South the people of the North are ahead of the government. If Mr. Lincoln wants them he can have 500,000 men in three weeks, and 200 millions of dollars to render the war short, sharp and decisive. In the first place he can march on Richmond from Washington with his troops to restore the authority of United States law. Wherever there is a post office and a custom house at the South the federal government has a right to protect both with any number of troops necessary for the purpose. This is a view of the legality and constitutionality of the action of the administration which seems to be lost sight of at the South. The principal towns would thus be occupied in succession by the advancing army, and that accomplished, the surrounding territory is necessarily reduced to submission to the federal power. The State of Virginia has seized the Custom House at its capital. The federal government has a right to retake it and assert its own authority. In view of the near approach of danger, the Virginia Convention may reconsider the secession ordinance, or perhaps the State may redeem its honor by claiming that it is not yet out of the Union, and by throwing the responsibility on the people who are to vote for it in May, and would probably vote in the negative in order to save their soil from becoming the theatre of war. If Virginia should give way, the other States will be likely to follow her example, and thus, in a short time, the whole South would be restored to the Union. If Virginia resists the contest cannot last very long, considering her large slave population, which will either become fugitives or take up arms against their masters. Slavery would thus be abolished, and abolitionism put an end to at the same time. The majority of the people of the North do not desire to meddle with the slave property of the Southern States; but that war must unavoidably result in its destruction can hardly admit of a doubt. As the principal property in those States consist of slaves, the war will, therefore, necessarily be one of brief duration.

To the Slaveholders of the South.

It is fully time for President Lincoln to issue a proclamation to the country, explanatory of the principles upon which the war that has commenced will be carried on. Such a document is needed, in order to tranquilize the minds of Union loving citizens in the South, and to carry terror into the hearts of revels, who may persevere in resisting the laws. A very large portion of the slaveholders, in the seceding, as well as in the Border States have been from the beginning, totally opposed to the conspiracy to dissever the republic. Their hearts are true and loyal, and they will, doubtless, rally to the support of the government, as soon as its intentions are properly understood. The leaders of the ultra Southern party, have deluded themselves, and their followers, with the belief that the North was divided while the slaveholding members of the confederacy, were united. Party lines, have, however, been swept away, in the free States, since the bombardment of Fort Sumter, and they are now a unit, while below Mason and Dixon’s line, discontent and disaffection prevail everywhere, and a small effort, on the part of the administration, will create a general reaction, and an immense rally to its support.

Southern conspirators should be notified that no aggressive war has been inaugurated against the slave States, and that there is no intention to invade any of the rights that are guaranteed to them by the constitution. It is the determination of the administration, however, to retake all places and properties belonging to the federal government, and to employ any amount of force that may be requisite for that purpose. Every fortification, arsenal, navy yard, custom house and post office, of which possession has been usurped, must be arrested from the possession of the revolted States, at the cost, if need be of hundreds of millions of money, and of five hundred thousand men. From Baltimore to New Orleans, therefore, no choice will be left to the Southern people, excepting between resistance and unconditional submission to the laws and it is the duty of the President to proclaim that while those who are true to their allegiance to the American flag, and give it aid and support, may rely upon present and future protection, the utmost penalties due to treason will be exacted from traitors, and individuals who ally themselves with armies fighting against the government. Their property will be confiscated and wherever their lives are not forfeited, it will be exclusively owing to Executive clemency.

There never was a more causeless rebellion, than that which has been slowly growing in strength at the South, until it has culminated in its present formidable proportions. With a majority in both houses of Congress, it would have been easy to have obtained redress for any real sectional grievances, if a legal remedy for existing evils had been desired. This formed no part of the plan, however, of Mr. Jefferson Davis and his fellow conspirators. They had resolved that the Union should be dissolved, and, also that hostilities should be commenced, in order to replace the constitution of the United States by a military government; to take possession of the national capital; and to remodel the republic, in accordance with their own fantastic, revolutionary scheme. Their designs are now exposed, and their defeat is as sure as the revolution of the earth around the sun, and the return of the seasons. But sharp, sudden, prompt, and vigorous measures, must be adopted, to avoid that most cruel of calamities—a long war. The people demand that it shall be carried on with the utmost energy, and that every opportunity should be given to our loyal Southern brethren to render their assistance. Five hundred thousand troops, if called for, will be as readily yielded as seventy thousand. Our capitalists will lend money without stint. Mr. Lincoln should take no less of either, than the exigencies of the case require, and should be restrained within the limits of no ill calculated economy. By explaining thoroughly the designs of his administration, and acting with a promptitude suitable to the emergency, the war may be compressed within a period of six months.

Thickening Cloud of War—Maryland and Virginia Doomed.

The Union Governor of Maryland, who has withstood the appeals and threats of the secessionists since last December, has been coerced by a crazy mob of conspirators into calling an extra session of the State Legislature on the 26th inst., and has been warned of the consequences should he fail to deliver a secession message. We had hoped for better things: that Maryland would stand fast by the Union and be saved; but as her Legislature is overwhelmingly for revolution, she may be already considered as on the broad highly to swift destruction.

The burning of Norfolk (Gosport) Navy Yard, with a powerful squadron of our largest and some of our finest ships of war, is confirmed. This destruction of millions of property it appears, was the only alternative to prevent its falling into the hands of the rebels; but that it was impossible to save the splendid new steamer Merrimac, costing over a million dollars, is a mystery which, with the information before us, we cannot solve. One thing is perfectly clear. We can understand from this conflagration, which reduces thousands of her working people to beggary, that Virginia is fully committed to the secession league for the destruction of our government; and so, then let it be accepted. It is perhaps well that Maryland and Virginia have elected to bear the brunt of this conflict; for thus it is brought to the very field of operations where the crushing power of the North, military, naval and financially, can be brought to bear most promptly and decisively. And we must be prompt. Not only is the army protecting our federal capital denied provisions from Virginia and Maryland, but the seventy thousand inhabitants of that city and Georgetown are in danger of starvation, inasmuch as the scanty supplies which find their way to the District markets are almost monopolized at famine prices by the army. This is worse than Fort Sumter, and in the eyes of the world we are disgraced if we permit this state of things a week longer, with all power to put an end to it.

The war of the government against the revolted States is not a war of extermination or subjugation. It is an appeal to arms for the recovery of certain United States custom houses, forts, arsenals, navy yards, mints, marine hospitals, courts of justice, post offices and post roads, and for the restoration of the law of the land in the revolted States. Such is the character and such are the purposes of this war. On the other side it is a war undertaken for the purpose of detaching the rebellious States from the Union of which they form a very important part. They proclaim that they have thrown off their obligations to the government of the United States, and are engaged in a war of independence. They are grossly deceived. After deceiving their friends in the North with false professions of attachment to the Union, our Southern revolutionists are grossly deceiving themselves in this last resort of war.

The North is a unit against them and our government lags far behind our public sentiment. Five hundred thousand men are ready to answer at once the call of the government, not for defensive, but offensive operations. The plan of the enemy is to keep our Northern legions to the line of the Potomac. The reason is obvious. But the government should push on an overwhelming force upon Richmond, for the recovery of the government property there, and to extinguish those hostile cannon foundries. The next point of occupation should be Raleigh, North Carolina, and thence to Columbia, South Carolina, and thence to Montgomery, Alabama, the capital of the Confederate States. This expedition with a co-operating squadron along the seaboard, and another down the Mississippi, would soon crush out this formidable Southern revolt. In advance of this movement President Lincoln should issue his proclamation guaranteeing the complete protection of all loyal Union men and their property, but warning the enemies of the government of the dangers of confiscation, negroes included. This would sift out the wheat from the chaff in all the invaded States.

Our administration is naturally and properly enough devoting itself to the defence of Washington; but Mr. Lincoln and his Cabinet should remember that while the Romans remained at home in defence of their capital, Hannibal remained in Italy, and that when they carried the war into Africa they removed the enemy from Rome, and brought his ambitious designs to a speedy and ignominious end. To disperse the revolutionary forces threatening Washington, Maryland and Virginia should at once be made to feel the pressure of two hundred thousand loyal men, and the first duty of the North is to open all our highways to Washington by land and water. The administration should not stop to chaffer upon nice punctilios of courtesy and submission to insolent traitors, but, driven to war, it should push forward all its resources to crush this gigantic rebellion.

The Charleston Mercury

More Aid for Virginia.

The Richardson Guard left at 11 o’clocklast night for Richmond on the Northeastern Railroad. The company was in fine spirits, and are determined to maintain the honor and chivalry of the Palmetto State. We could not obtain a list of the officers and men last night, but we will furnish them at the earliest moment. We know that Captain CHARLES H. AXON and Lieutenant BOAG were of the number. Col. SUBER also left on the same train for the same destination.

Sketches and Incidents of the Expected Conflict

Officers of the Army and Navy of the Confederate States, and Captains sailing under Letters of Marque, will greatly oblige the proprietor of THE MERCURY by furnishing sketches and incidents of the expected conflict between our gallant soldiers and their enemies.

When supplied exclusively, a liberal compensation will be allowed.

The Blockade.

Wrong is always prolific. One usurpation produces another. When the President of the United States, under the authority of a mere Riot Act, usurped the power to call out seventy five thousand men to make war upon, and to conquer the people of seven sovereign States, it was clear that he intended to be controlled by no constitutional restraints, in the prosecution of his flagitious policy. He now follows up this usurpation with another. He undertakes, without any law of Congress authorizing it, to blockade all the Southern ports. We publish his Proclamation below. To blockade the ports of a country is an expedient of war. It is used to embarrass or to subdue an enemy. Thus the Abolition Government in Washington, in defiance of the Constitution, inaugurates war, raises an army to carry it on, and establishes it at sea. Of course, the Congress of the Confederate States will be compelled, as soon as it assembles, to authorize the issuing of Letters of Marque and Reprisal. If the Constitution of the United States was not long since dead and buried, on the meeting of Congress this truculent usurper would be impeached and executed. But there is no Constitution in the United States. There is nothing but a fierce, unscrupulous and bloody despotism enthroned at Washington. The Capitol and the President’s mansion are filled with soldiery. The miserable miscreant and fanatic who is at the head of the Government, is determined to signalize his administration by the ruin and miseries he may produce. By the blessing of God, we have escaped from his bloody tyranny. We have him at arms length—opibusque parati. The worse anticipations of those of our public men who warned the South of her danger in the ascendancy of Black Republicanism, have been fully realized. All honor to their wisdom, patriotism and energy.


The National Intelligencer of Saturday, publishes the following:

Whereas an insurrection against the Government of the United States has broken out in the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas, and the laws of the United States for the collection of the revenue cannot be effectually executed therein conformably to that provision of the Constitution which requires duties to be uniform throughout the United States:

And whereas a combination of persons, engaged in such insurrection, have threatened to grant pretended letters of marque to authorize the bearers thereof to commit assaults on the lives, vessels and property of good citizens of the country lawfully engaged in commerce on the high seas, and in waters of the United States:

And whereas an Executive Proclamation has been already issued, requiring the persons engaged in these disorderly proceedings to desist therefrom, calling out a militia force for the purpose of repressing the same, and convening Congress in extraordinary session to deliberate and determine thereon:

Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, with a view to the same purposes before mentioned, and to the protection of the public peace, and the lives and property of quiet and orderly citizens pursuing their lawful occupations, until Congress shall have assembled and deliberated on the said unlawful proceedings, or until the same shall have ceased, have further deemed it advisable to set on foot a blockade of the ports within the States aforesaid, in pursuance of the laws of the United States and of the law of nations in such case provided. For this purpose a competent force will be posed so as to prevent entrance and exit of vessels from the ports aforesaid. If, therefore, with a view to violate such blockade, a vessel shall approach, or shall attempt to leave any of the said ports, she will be duly warned by the commander of one of the blockading vessels, who will endorse on her register the fact and date of such warning, and if the same vessel shall again attempt to enter or leave the blockaded port, she will be captured and sent to the nearest convenient port, for such proceedings against her and her cargo as prize as may be deemed advisable.

And I hereby proclaim and declare that if any person, under the pretended authority of the said States, or under any other pretence, shall molest a vessel of the United States, or the persons or cargo on board her, such persons will be held amenable to the laws of the United States for the prevention and punishment of piracy.

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and cause the seal of the United States to be affixed.

Done at the City of Washington, this nineteenth day of April, in the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and sixty one, and of the independence of the United States the eighty fifth.


WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State.

Our Pensacola Correspondence.


In my last letter I reported to you that the mails were stopped to and from this place. I received my information from the Warrington Postmaster, who ought to be authority upon the subject. The information was partly true. The civil mails are stopped, the civil postmasters are displaced, and the mails are put under exclusive charge of the chief Quartermaster of the army. With this difference, I suppose that the mails will go on as heretofore. They will thus be under the surveillance of a military officer. The Postmaster here was suspected of being a traitor and spy. This may have been the immediate reason of the change, though there were other sufficient reasons. Last night, the Postmaster, who is also a leading merchant, was arrested, upon some proof of his guilt. He is still a prisoner. This place swarms with spies and traitors. General BRAGG has given them their choice—to join the ranks as soldiers, to work, or to leave. There has been for two days past a hurrying to and fro, a hasty packing of household goods, and a confused and motley exodus. There is a great deal of distress and poverty among the inhabitants of Warrrington and Woolsey. The latter is the name of the village on the north side of the navy yard; Warrington that on the south side. These people are laborers or mechanics, who have lived entirely on employment from the old Government. They have been thrown out of employment with arrears of pay due them. Like poor people the world over, they have numerous children. I have passed few houses at which I was not appealed to most piteously to buy furniture, or some of the odds and ends of housekeeping supplies. Disloyal as most of them are, their distress excited my sympathy.

It is strange that people are so incredulous of coming catastrophes. I have known only one person, except myself, since the dissolution of the Union, who believed that we should have war. For weeks past I have been telling these people here to get their houses in order to leave, or to die, and they have stared at me with wild eyed incredulity. Even now they linger and wish to remain, unbelieving that a collision will occur. Like the foolish people of Sodom and Gomorrah, they will not believe until the shower of ruin shall overwhelm them, and, like LOTT’S foolish wife, they will be turned, if not into pillars of salt, certainly into mangled corpses.

Yesterday Major (or Captain) VOGDES and Lieut. SLEMMER came over for a parley with Gen. BRAGG. They were not permitted to come within the lines. Gen. BRAGG had an interview with them in the Navy Yard. I have not been able to learn what was the subject of the conference.

Another war steamer, leviathan of the deep, arrived on the night of the 16th. Her name is said to be the Atlantic. The fleet now numbers seven vessels. There is no blockade yet, but no vessels can be chartered in Mobile or New Orleans for this port. The owners will not take the risk except for an enormous premium. It is a foolish apprehension, for even in case of a blockade, there would be no right to capture a vessel bringing freight. The cargo, if public property, might be seized, but the vessel would not be liable. An English ship came in yesterday.

There are now between six and seven thousand troops here. We shall have a long siege here probably of six months’ duration. The enemy have the advantage of us. They have more guns, and the advantage of position. They have command of the sea, and can reinforce and supply themselves without hindrance. We are in a barren country, without railroad or water communication. It will be very laborious and expensive to feed the army thus circumstanced.


Valley Spirit

(Franklin, PA)

Ready, Aim, Fire

 “Every man in the community should set his house in order and be ready to meet any event, and assume any duty, that may be required of him in the present struggle to maintain the Constitution and Laws of his country.–The danger is at hand, even at our very doors, and before everything we hold near and dear as patriots is snatched from us we should take the stand that will encourage the timid and cheer on the brave. A formidable band of traitors have broken up the Union and made war against the government. While we considered them friends we battled for their rights in the Union, but when they determine to break up the Union and array themselves as enemies against us, we are their enemies. They are no longer of our household but enemies up in arms against us. Let us then be up and doing and crush the monster before it crushes us. Let us be watchful on every side and allow no man to slumber at his post while the flag of his country is in danger. Let the watch-word of all be–”READY, AIM, FIRE.”

Semi-Weekly Raleigh Register

The Free Negroes.

We understand that some of the free negroes in this community are alarmed for their personal safety. This alarm is altogether unfounded, for we feel well assured that no free negro who conducts himself properly will suffer any harm. We would suggest to the free negroes here to do as their brethren did at Newbern—volunteer to work in the cause of the State. They can be made useful in working upon forts, magazines, arsenals, breastworks, &c.

Independent Corps in New Orleans.

Two peculiar military companies are being organized at New Orleans—one, composed wholly of friends of the late General William Walker, is under the command of Major Thomas Dolan, of the Nicaraguan army. The other, made up of sportsmen and hunters, is termed the “Louisiana Guerillas.” The uniform will be a velvet hunting jacket, mi tasses, or leggins, similar to those worn by Indians, cotton pantaloons and an otter skin cap. The “Guerillas Louisianais” would fight as skirmishers, and for that purpose be armed with a double barrelled gun or a rifle, and a short sabre.

Daily Advocate

(Baton Rouge, LA)

More than her quota of gallant men

East Baton Rouge, from present appearances, will furnish more than her quota of gallant men to defend the South from the Northern foe. There will be at least three full companies raised in the city of Baton Rouge alone, in addition to those that will be raised in the parish outside the city limits, and the squad of fifteen or twenty who have joined the Delta Rifles.

Let it be remembered that many who are now enrolled are poor men, and some will leave their families unprepared, in a manner, to meet the wants of the coming summer, when deprived of their natural supporters. It has been suggested by planter friends, that the City council take measures to open the lists for subscriptions in money and provisions. Times are hard and many of our most liberal men are not overburdened with cash, but if the opportunity be given them, they will gladly avail themselves of it to display their liberality in some substantial manner. Let the Mayor be authorized to appoint some one, say the Commissary of the Market, to receive donations of provisions, cattle, meal, wood, etc., and our word for it the families of our gallant men will not need to appeal to the charity of any one for support.

Diary of a Yankee in the Patent Office

by Horatio Nelson Taft

WEDNESDAY 24—Another warm day with some rain in the afternoon. The day has passed off much as yesterday. No troops from the North. No mails since Friday, and in fact no news at all from the North. It is thought that there are troops enough here now for the safety of the City, as matters now look. But large bodies of Virginians have gathered near Alexandria and also north of us, and a decent may be made upon us anytime, but we are geting used to strange things now. I am alone in the room at the office now and have to do all the writing. Charley dined with us today.

A Rebel War Clerk’s Diary

by John Beauchamp Jones

April 24th—Martial music is heard everywhere, day and night, and all the trappings and paraphernalia of war’s decorations are in great demand. The ladies are sewing everywhere, even in the churches. But the gay uniforms we see to-day will change their hue before the advent of another year. All history shows that fighting is not only the most perilous pursuit in the world, but the hardest and the roughest work one can engage in. And many a young man bred in luxury, will be killed by exposure in the night air, lying on the damp ground, before meeting the enemy. But the same thing may be said of the Northmen. And the arbitrament of war, and war’s desolation, is a foregone conclusion. How much better it would have been if the North had permitted the South to depart in peace! With political separation, there might still have remained commercial union. But they would not.

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Copy Right, Copy Sense is the product of quite a bit of studying and research. I try to lay copyright out in a way that makes "sense."

Since Skedaddle consumes the greatest part of my on-line time, I haven't been able to devote as much time to my  Internet Resources for Camping. However, I have provided a fairly comprehensive collection of links to  RV manufacturers' web sites.

Skedaddle e-journal is in its second year of publication. 

The first volume, with four issues, was published in 2004. Each issue contained a variety of articles, poems, and images, with no particular focus other than the American Civil War. 

In Volume 2, the focus is on day-to-day news from newspapers and other sources, starting with January 1, 1861 and ending on December 31, 1861.  In the initial issue of this volume, Lincoln is not yet inaugurated and the only state that has seceded is South Carolina.

The current intent is for further volumes to be created by year:

 Volume 3—1862
 Volume 4—1863
 Volume 5—1864
 Volume 6—1865

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